■o- <► ■»
3 3 3
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR - OFFICE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS ^WASHINGTON, D.C.
Charlie Saluskin, who came to Washington with oth-
er members of the delegation from Yakima Agency in Wa-
shington. (See page six.)
INDIANS AT WORK
CONTENTS OF THE ISSUE OF JULY 1939
Volume VI Number 11
Editorial John Collier 1
Rosebud Sioux Of South Dakota Adopt
British King and Queen 7
Dr. W. Carson Ryan Finds Indians Stimu-
lated To Control Own Destinies 8
No Longer Vanishing American - The Red
Indian Rises Again Floyd W. La Rouche . 9
Senior Class At Carson Agency Visits
San Francisco Fair 15
Five Awards In Competitive Exhibition
Won By Indian Construction Unit 16
Cattle Raising On The San Carlos Reser-
vation In Arizona Harry Stevens 18
Unusual Indian Murals Completed By
Maynard Dixon 22
Herman W. Johannes Resigns As Manager
Of Menominee Indian Mills 23
Indians And Indian Matters As Glimpsed
In The Daily Press Doris C. Brodt 25
A Kickapoo War Veteran Tells His Story . . . Richard Simon 29
Indians At Red Lake, Minnesota, Meet
Problems Of A Changing World Mary M. Kirkland and
Clarence W. Ringey . 31
The Right Reverend Monsignor William
Hughes Dies , Rev. J. B. Tennelly. 35
Old Days And Traditions Lived Again By
Western Shoshone Indians 36
Almost One Hundred Indian Groups Have
Adopted New Constitutions 37
Telephone Poles For CCC-ID Patrick Gray 39
Wide Variety Of Recent Publications Re-
veal Deep Interest In Indian Subjects . Elizabeth Morison .. 40
CCC-ID Reports 46
ANews Sheet for INDIANS ond the INDIAN SERVICE
VOLUME VI : - JULY 1939 - - MUMPER. 11
A very recent shift of policy toward Indian native cultures
by the Indian administration of the Republic of Mexico holds immense
significance for all of Pan-America. The change has been reported at
Washington in recent days by Dr. Daniel F. Rubin de la Borbolla. Dr.
Borbolla heads the Department of Anthropology of the National School
of Biological Sciences of the National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico
To realize fully the meaning of the shift of policy, one
needs to go back hundreds of years, to the great Indian reforms of
Philip the Second. Philip the Second promulgated the Laws of the
Indies, and contained within those laws was the promise of a good
future for the Indians through the whole vast domain of Spain. The
laws were not merely idealistic. Philip the Second investigated In-
dian problems with such pertinacity that he made himself the best
informed man in the world upon the subject. He used methods quite
modern, and the reports which he drew in from hundreds of areas fur-
nish the best data existing as to the populations, the geographical
situation, the economic status and the community needs of the Indians
of three hundred years ago.
The Laws of the Indies were promulgated in Spanish and were
distributed throughout the Spanish dominion.
But the Indians did not read Spanish, and hardly any of
them could speak more than a few words of it. They never became ef-
fectually possessed of the Laws of the Indies; hence they could not
Invoke the Spanish sovereignty in any practical manner. Their num-
berless petitions went wide of the mark because they were blankly un-
informed upon that system of laws and procedures needed to implement
The years and centuries went on, and still the Indian
masses neither could read nor write nor understand Spanish.
Then there was launched the government's effort at school-
ing the Indians. Within the last twenty-five years, schools have been
planted everywhere in Mexico. These schools in many instances have
been models of practical endeavor. They have been, within the limits
of an exclusive utilization of Spanish as their medium, economic,
cultural and clinical centers of the Indian communities. But this
limitation, of the utilization of Spanish and nothing but Spanish,
was found to bind the schools in to a too narrow usefulness, spirit-
ual and practical.
Now has come the re -examination of theory and of practice.
Three million Mexican Indians are devoid of any knowledge of Spanish.
Another two million, classed in the census as literate, have no more
than a slight trading knowledge of words and phrases. They do not
really communicate in Soanish, nor can they be reached through Soan-
ish. A minimum of five million Indians in Mexico are. practically
mono-lingual in the Indian language. These languages number fifty-
two, but for practical purposes, to reach the great mass of the In-
dians, thirty-nine is the minimum number.
The new policy in Mexico is to shift the school work with
Indians onto the native language basis. This requires the establish-
ment of alphabets and the rendering of the native languages into
phonetic or conventional transcription. The work has been started
in a demonstration area. The policy is definite for the whole In-
It is intended not merely to shift the communication and
teaching into the native languages, but to compile, interpret and
publish in the native languages the facts that are essential to each
Indian group where it is. Thus there is being inaugurated, on paral-
lel lines, a vast linquistic project, a sociological and economic
project, and a project of re-stating the general and universal prob-
lems and aims of government into the aboriginal languages.
Dr. Borbolla, who told at length what is most roughly sum-
marized here, is not a romantic. He anticipates the entry of all
the Indians into European culture, not in spite of the new policy,
but by means of it. Because of the barrier against communication,
after hundreds of years they have not entered into European culture.
Dr. Borbolla and his co-workers are satisfied that the new policy
and method, if it can be pressed for a sufficient length of time,
will bridge the chasm, will bring the Indians into the Spanish lan-
guage and into world culture and at the same time will conserve an
all but incalculable heritage of ancient folk values for the use of
the Mexico of tomorrow.
Dr. Borbolla realizes, too, the huge difficulties on the
way. He is seeking various kinds of technical help from the learned
societies in this country.
On May 25, 1939, died Mrs. Stella M. Atwood, at Riverside,
California, and on May 28, died James A. Frear, at Washington. In-
dian history, since 1920, would have been different, and less happy,
but for the work of each of these.
Mrs. Atwood died in her 74th year, and Mr. Frear in his
79th year. Mr. Frear 1 s interest first was kindled by Mrs. Atwood,
far back in 1925. Mrs. Atwood had "awakened the nation" on Indian
issues in 1922. Thus, both of these friends of the Indian gave their
militant and toilsome service when past middle life.
It was in 1920 that Mrs. Atwood brought into existence the
Indian Welfare Division of the General Federation of Women's Clubs.
She acted as its chairman. There was an atmosphere of peril and
crisis in many parts of the Indian country, in the years 1921 and
1922. Albert B. Fall had become Secretary of the Interior.
In the spring of 1922 I first encountered Mrs. Atwood.
She was reading omnivorously in the Indian Commissioners' reports,
Federal Statutes, and particularly the Appropriation Hearings of the
House Committee. Each of us, at that date in 1922, was prepared to
give two years (and, we naively hoped, no more) to an effort to
change the system of Indian management. We stumbled right away into
the Bursum Bill, passed by the Senate and pending in the House, of
which the Indians themselves knew nothing. This bill sought to ex-
propriate the land-holdings of the Pueblo Tribes. Other bills and
administrative undertakings of shattering character were quickly
discovered. One of them would have taken from the Mescalero Apache
Tribe most of its lands. Another would have denied the ownership
by the Navajo Tribe of all its Executive Order reservations, through
a departmental ruling which collaterally would have denied the In-
dian ownership of Executive order reservations everywhere. Another,
most picturesque of all the terrors, was known as the Indian Omnibus
Bill. This is not the place to describe that bill.
The public's lack of information and consequent indiffer-
ence was all but absolute; the Indians were hardly better informed;
and these menacing bills and policies were being promoted by the In-
terior Department itself.
The Pueblo Tribes first marched. And in company with sev-
enteen of their governors, priests, and other elder statesmen, Mrs.
Atwood came to Washington. Then commenced an exceedingly bitter and
dramatic struggle. Before it was finished, the Albert B. Fall attack
against Indian rights had been destroyed in its entirety. Mrs. At-
wood' s health had temporarily been shattered. The victory seemed at
the moment tremendous, until Mrs. Atwood, along with the groups she
had taken leadership in awakening, realized that the fundamental
system of Indian Affairs had not been changed at all. That system,
the product of two generations of administrative and statutory accum-
ulation, sought the destruction of the tribes as living, functioning
entities, denied constitutional, rights to Indians, pulverized land-
holdings through the allotment system which threw into white owner-
ship two million acres of Indian land each year, and generally was
the system of "liquidating" the Indian through the technics of a
dogmatically benevolent absolutism.
The American Indian Defense Association, Inc. , carried
forward the effort; Mrs. Atwood was a founder and director.
At this point entered James A. Frear, then a member of
Congress from Wisconsin. Mr. Frear had just at that time been placed
on the Indian Committee of the House, having been expelled from all
other committees because he was a politically Progressive. Conver-
sations initiated by Mrs. Atwood resulted in profound and fixed pur-
pose in the mind of James A. Frear - the purpose not of curing symp-
tomatic woes of the Indians, but of reconstructing, in principle and
in form, the system of Indian management. Mr. Frear waged his cam-
paign in committee and on the floor of Congress, and at his own ex-
pense made journeys to Indian country North, South, East and West.
During the longest of these journeys, Mr. Frear, at Salt Lake City,
brought to a focus the interest of Senator King of Utah, whence
arose, after nearly two years, the Senate's activity of investigat-
ing Indian matters, under a resolution promoted by Senator King."
(1928) Mr. Frear kept up his work until so far as his own powers
could extend, it was accomplished. The Indian Reorganization Act of
June 18, 1934, was the culmination of that which Mrs. Atwood, Repre-
sentative Frear, Senator Kin? and many others had struggled for.
Mrs. Atwood never ceased her Indian activity. She con-
tinued it virtually until the last day of her life. Mr. Frear re-
tired from Congress voluntarily, but his personal interest was con-
tinuing. Many other efforts and other lives were interwoven with
the efforts and lives of these two, whose names surely will have a
permanent place in the history of Indians and of government.
Mrs. Atwood carried for very many years a burden of ill
health. But her life was a happy one. Interests ever-youthful and
various, a sense of humor rarely failing, a perfect comradeship with
Dr. Atwood, her husband. Last year, with Dr. Atwood, Mrs. Atwood
visited England, and at Avon, in the Lake country, along the Thames,
her spirit seemed to have found its native home. That old - thous-
and-year-old - pursuit of liberty and of justice through pragmatic
achievement, hoping not too much and fainting never, which is one of
England's gifts to universal man, had entered her own life when she
was young. Going back to these sources was a crowning happiness in
a good life, and it was not going away from Indians.
Commissioner of Indian Affairs
WASHINGTON OFFICE VISITORS
The following superintendents have recently visited the
Washington Office: Sophie D. Aberle, Superintendent, United Pueb-
los Agency (New Mexico); Louis C. Balsam, Field Representative in
Charge, Colville Agency (Washington); Ralph Fredenberg, Superinten-
dent, Keshena Agency (Wisconsin); Guy Hobgood, Superintendent,
Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency (Oklahoma); Walter B. McCown, Superin-
tendent, Kiowa Agency (Oklahoma); William C. Smith, Superintendent,
Sisseton Agency (South Dakota); Claude R. Whitlock, Superintendent,
Rosebud Agency (South Dakota); Seth Wilson, Superintendent, Hopi
Agency (Arizona); and Robert Yellowtail, Superintendent, Crow Agen-
Other recent visitors have included: A. C. Monahan, Re-
gional Coordinator, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma and Louis 0. Mueller,
Chief Special Officer, Denver, Colorado. Cheyenne and Arapaho (Ok-
lahoma): Ed Burns, Theodore Hawrey, John Otterby, and Jesse Row-
ledge. Hopi (Arizona): Bryan P. Adams, Fred Lomayesva, Ernest
Naquayouma, Peter Nuvamsa, and Sam Shingoitwa. Rosebud (South Da-
kota): Stephen Brave Heart, Carlos Gallineaux, Henry Stranger Horse,
Joe Thin Elk. George Whirlwind Soldier, and Thomas Uniting. S eminole
(Florida): Lincoln Burden and Charles C. Grounds. Sis seton (South
Dakota): Isaac Greyearth, Albert Heminger, and James Renville.
ROSEBUD SIOUX OF SOUTH DAKOTA ADOPT BRITISH KING AND QUEEN
Resolution From Tribe Sent By Secretary Ickes To
State Department For Transmission To Their Ma.je sties
Although disappointed that the itinerary of King George VI
and Queen Elizabeth did not lead them to the Sioux country, the Rose-
bud Sioux Indians of South Dakota assembled in council meeting and
extended to their Majesties an honorary membership in their tribe.
Henceforth, the King will be known to these Indians as
Wicota Nawicakicijin, or "Defender of Many People", and the Queen
will be known by the name of Wicota Vastekilapi, or "Loved by Many
A dignified document, adorned by an Indian head, hand-
painted in watercolor, was sent to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs
for presentation to their Majesties on their visit to the nation's
capital. It contains the sentiments of the tribe, as drawn up in a
council meeting, held June 3, expressing their sincerest wishes for
the personal welfare of the royal couple and for the prosperity of
the British Empire.
"It is remembered," the preamble states, "it was from the
English people the first civilizing influence upon our race was felt
and by that token a warm feeling of kinship exists."
The resolution is signed by Thomas F. Whiting, President,
and Lester Edwards, Secretary of the Rosebud Sioux Tribal Council.
A roster of th« meeting, attended by 48 members of the tribe, is
attached. The list includes such names as Chris Colombe, Levi Elk
Looks Back, George Whirlwind Soldier, Mike One Star, James Running
Horse, James Two Charge, and Jesse Brave Hawk. The following is a
copy of the resolution:
BE IT RESOLVED, whereas it is noted in newspaper
reports that certain tribes of Indians are to honor the
King and Queen of England by conferring upon them member-
ship to their tribe by adoption and,
Whereas, the Rosebud Sioux Tribe of Indians join
with other citizens of the United States in extending to
their Majesties a welcome to our nation and,
Whereas, since the itinerary of the King and
Queen does not lead them to the Sioux country where these
sentiments of friendship could be personally expressed;
Therefore, the Rosebud Sioux Tribe in council as-
sembled the third day of June 1939, take this opportunity
of extending to the King and Queen our sincerest wishes for
their personal welfare and for prosperity of the peoples of
the British Empire, and as a token of our sentiments extend
to them an honorary membership into the Rosebud Sioux Tribe
and give to them tribal names: to wit - the King shall be
known to us as "Defender of Many People" - Wicota Nawicaki-
cijin; and the Queen shall be known to us as "Loved by Many
People" - Wicota Wastekilapi.
This Resolution to be extended through the Com-
missioner of Indian Affairs at the time of the visit of
their Majesties to our Capital.
Submitted by Resolution Committee.
Thomas F. Whiting, President
Carlos Gallineaux Rosebud Sioux Tribal Council.
Levi Elk Looks Back
Lester Edwards, Secretary.
DR. W. CARSON RYAN FINDS INDIANS STIMULATED TO CONTROL OWN DESTINIES
"... What gives the present national program for the American Indian
a hope and vitality such programs have never had before is that those
in charge of it are resolutely determined to encourage Indian people,
as human beings, to live their own lives, to capitalize on their own
assets, to control their own destinies (within the total framework of
the American scene, to be sure), to make their own unique contribu-
tion to Western civilization. The present effort would not have been
possible were it not for the fact that there are now hundreds of re-
sponsible persons who have learned to value Indians as people, who
know their capacities, who appreciate individuals among them as per-
# The above excerpt appeared in an article "Democracy At Work In The
Community", by Dr. W. Carson Ryan, in the May 6, 1939 issue of SCHOOL
AND SOCIETY. Dr. Ryan was formerly Director of Education in the In-
NO LONGER THE VANISHING AMERICAN - THE RED INDIAN RISES AGAIN
By Floyd W. La Rouche
(Editor's Note: Presented below is a condensed version of
a 3,000-word article prepared on request of the London Times and
printed with copious illustrations in its special United States num-
ber, published on the occasion of the visit of the British King and
Queen to this country. By publishing this article throughout the
United Kingdom and elsewhere, the editors of the Times typify an
almost world-wide interest in the problems and the progress of the
American Indian. )
The Red Indian of the United States, pictured at home as
a member of a dying race and portrayed in many countries of Europe
as a militant savage arrayed in feathered headdress and waving a
tomahawk, is in actual fact, in the year 1939, as completely differ-
ent from one misconception as from the other.
The Indian of the United States is not "vanishing" and he
is not and has never been as wild as he was painted.
It is true that the Indian population diminished steadily
after the establishment of white colonies, with full-blood Indians
becoming less numerous as the assimilative processes went forward.
But in recent years these things have changed. The curve of Indian
population has taken a sudden upward swing and the drift toward as-
similation has apparently slowed down. And with these changes in
the current of native existence, there has come a resurgence of In-
dian culture, Indian economy and Indian spirit.
The best available statistics indicate that at the time
Columbus landed there were living in what is now the United States,
approximately 84-6,000 Indians. By 1900 the population was reported
as 270,000, and apparently had dropped at one time even below this
The chief causes of Indian decimation, as classified by
one authority, were smallpox and epidemics; tuberculosis; sexual
diseases; whiskey and attendant dissipation; removals, starvation
and subjection to unaccustomed conditions; low vitality due to men-
tal depression under misfortune; wars. War is considered the least
important cause, as the tribes were in chronic warfare among them-
selves before the white man came.
The Indian population continued to decline until the lat-
ter part of the last century when it started slowly upward. Within
the last decade the increase has been unmistakably rapid. There are
now 342,000 Indians in the United States, plus 30,000 Indians and
Eskimos living in Alaska. Of the 342,000, approximately half are
full-blooded Indians and the remainder are mixed with whites in vary-
ing degrees, and in the case of a few tribes, with Negroes. There
are more than 200 distinct tribes living in 27 different states.
From NEWSWEEK Magazine, June 19, 1939. Unprec-
edented as was the visit of the British King and Queen to
the United States last week, it was no more unusual than
the arrival of The London Times on American newsstands the
Printed in London and brought over on the Aqui-
tania, the 13,000 copies of The Times' United States Number
consigned to the American News Company sold out at 5 cents
each in three hours, and speculators got as high as $1 per
copy. Meanwhile, the New York office of The Times cabled
frantically for more. The reply: 10,700 more copies will
be on sale in New York June 21.
Behind a full-page cover photomontage of London
and New York (sponsored by RCA and Cable & Wireless Ltd.},
with "God-speed and all success to Their Majesties", the
32 pages that caused all the furor contain articles on the
World's Fairs, education, travel, business, racial prob-
lems, art, and countless other subjects.
The increases in Indian population have not been accom-
panied by corresponding increases in land and other productive as-
sets. From 1887, when the General Allotment Act was passed, until
1933, Indians were consistently despoiled of their lands. Communal
land tenure was broken up. Indian resources were being rapidly dis-
Under the sway of a policy to "Americanize" the Indian,
the Indians as a race were on the road to extinction. Indian life
was becoming tangled in a mesh of democracy. Under the weight of
a benevolent Federal "guardianship", Indian initiative and resource-
fulness were being crushed. Tribal government was ignored or under-
mined. Ancient ceremonies and religions were suppressed. Native
arts and pottery were discouraged. Indian family life was nearly
destroyed in the institution of the government boarding school.
In 1862 Secretary Stanton described the administration of
Indian affairs as a "sink of iniquity" and President Lincoln de-
clared: "If we get through this war, and I live, this Indian system
shall be reformed. "
For years the friends of the Indian and Indian leaders
themselves agitated for reform. In the late 1920' s a thorough fac-
tual study of the whole system was made by a committee under the In-
stitute of Government Research. headed by Dr. Lewis Meriam. Publica-
tion of the Meriam Report in 1928 was followed by a lengthy investi-
gation by a committee of the United States Senate whose voluminous
hearings and exposures heralded the reforms to come. In 1929 there
were appointed Indian commissioners of a wholly new type, pledged to
a reform program - Messrs. Charles J. Rhoads and J. Henry Scatter-
good. Under their administration the ground work was laid for a new
In 1933 three vigorous critics of governmental Indian pol-
icies were appointed to important posts - Harold L. Ickes, as Secre-
tary of the Interior, Nathan R. Margold as Solicitor of the Interior
Department and John Collier as Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
The new Indian Commissioner defined his objectives thus:
To move the Indian tovrard economic self-support, which in-
cludes furnishing land for subsistence to landless groups. Furnish-
ing agricultural credit and opportunities for technological training
to Indians and assisting the development of the cooperative movement
To speed up the final settlement of Indian tribal claims
against the government.
To establish civil liberty, including group and cultural
liberty, within a framework of continuing Federal protection and as-
To establish conservation, through intelligent use by the
Indians themselves, with government aid, of all Indian-owned land
resources. Indian land resources have dangerously deteriorated
through misuse. Half the solid value of Indian range lands has been
Affirmatively to seek the conservation of the Indian social
heritage ("culture") through finding ways to help it interact with
the general life, in matters, economic, political and esthetic. This
includes as one element the protection of Indian ceremonial life; as
another, the protection and re -invigo ration of Indian arts and
crafts; as another, the discovery and utilization, in a process of
'"indirect administration" of viable elements in the material, politi-
cal and social culture of Indians.
So, to decentralize Indian administration that programs and
their fullfllment will be the responsibility of the local service
personnel in continuous interaction with the organized tribes.
To recruit talent more practical and more creative for In-
dian service, and supply in-service training to Indian and white em-
To abandon the tradition of Indian Office monopoly over
the Indian Service, by drawing all available Federal and state a-
gencies into Indian Service. In important areas the Indian Service
job is now a merger of the Departments of Agriculture and the In-
terior (Navajo, Pueblo, Wyoming, Shoshone); in others it is a merger
of the Interior Department with state departments of education,
health, welfare, etc., (California, Minnesota, Wisconsin).
The Indian Reorganization Act is the basic foundation for
the new era. Much of it is not new, having been suggested and even
strongly urged over a period of many years by enlightened men and
women both inside and outside the Government. But not until 1934
were these things incorporated into Federal law.
The old policies of Indian administration, when compared
to the new ones as embodied chiefly in the Act of 1934, present some
startling and significant contrasts. Here, in brief, is a compari-
son of some of the essential points:
LAND - The Old ; Traditional policy worked toward the break up
of Indian lands by individual property ownership. Indian tribal
enterprises became dormant because of lack of tools and credit. In-
dian soil resources, range and timber lands, were used and exploited
The New ; Land losses stopped and holdings increased
from 50,000 acres in 1933 to 52,650 acres in 1937. Group organiza-
tion was encouraged and credit supplied for cooperative enterprises.
Acreage leased to whites declined. Far-reaching plans for land,
range, timber and soil are being carried out in cooperation with the
Soil Conservation Service.
RIGHTS - The Old : The rights of Indians were almost solely de-
pendent on the Indian Bureau, which maintained itself as a monopoly
in Indian administration, to the detriment of tribal self-government.
The historic policy was to break up Indian cultural, social and eco-
nomic life, in favor of absorption by the dominant white population.
There was no legal assurance of civil liberties for Indians, because
offenders were subject to arrest, trial and imprisonment by Indian
Service officials and by judges controlled by reservation superinten-
dents. The Indian Bureau dealt with Indians individually, on a pa-
Thj3 .Hew; The Indians have been granted the fundamental
rights enjoyed by white citizens. The power of the Indian Bureau
over the Indians has been curbed, and Federal and State agencies are
cooperating in administrative responsibilities. The Bureau fosters
democratic principles and the right to negotiate through representa-
tives of the Indians' own choosing. Religious and cultural liberty
are affirmed. The right of Indians to their own languages, cere-
monies, arts and traditions is respected and encouraged.. Gag and se-
dition laws have been repealed. The system of justice for Indians
has been reorganized and safeguarded from official control of Indian
courts, whose jurisdiction Is carefully defined.
SOCIAL SERVICE - The Old: The Indian death rate was double that
of the general population in the 1920' s. Health services were inade-
quate. Indian education was dominated by boarding schools, for the
most part poor imitations of semi-military white industrial schools,
tending deliberately toward the break-up of Indian family life. In-
dian arts and crafts were discouraged.
The New ; The Indian death rate decreased to 13-7 per
thousand in 1936 (average U. S. rate is 11.5). Nine new hospitals
were built, 20 remodeled or enlarged and one is under construction.
Hany boarding schools were closed or reduced in size and the person-
nel improved. Some were developed as centers for older children and
for broken or "problem" homes. 7U new community day schools were
opened, enrolling 5,000 children. 6,34.0 more Indian children have
enrolled in public schools. The states are cooperating in Indian ed-
ucation. An Arts and Crafts Board has been created to raise workman-
ship, establish authenticity and provide markets for handicrafts.
PERSONNEL - The Old: Indians had few places and little prefer-
ence in the Indian Service, except in the most menial positions.
The Mew ; Indian employment in regular and emergency serv-
ices greatly increased. In October 1939 a total of V,00 Indians were
employed in the Service, with 83 in the Washington Office.
Opposition to the policies of the Indian Reorganization Act
has come from many sources, both among the Indians and among the
whites. Some of the opposition represents an honest difference of
view, much of it is selfish and a great deal of it is misinformed.
Generally speaking, the opposition among white people is due either
to self -interest in exploiting Indian lands, which the Indian Reor-
ganization Act has stopped; to the policy of religious freedom which
cuts under some of the privileges accorded missionaries in the past;
or to the policy of permitting Indians to develop their own tribal
life and handle their own affairs instead of being absorbed into the
But John Collier and his colleagues have thus far weathered
the storm of criticism that have come from many corners. They have
suffered some bad losses, their program has been battered at times to
a point of unrecognizability and the crusaders of old, now standing
on the receiving end, have taken some nasty blows, of which not a few
With it all the new day for the Indian moves forward. The
Indian has gained new stature, he is proud, he is on the move, his
land is being restored, his earnings are increasing, he is (in states
that previously have denied him) winning the right of suffrage, his
children are going to school, his arts, religions, languages, dances,
ceremonials, handicrafts are reviving. He is finding it is honorable
to be an Indian. And America is richer because this is true.
■5C- -ft •>,;- *- -K- #- #
Every Sunday afternoon through August 6, a radio program
to interpret and supplement the Federal Exhibits at the New York
World's Fair may be heard over the Columbia Broadcasting System from
2 to 2:30 (Eastern Standard Time).
The program, "Democracy in Action", is under the auspices
of the U. S. Office of Education and succeeds "Americans All - Im-
migrants All", recently named by the Women's National Radio Committee
as the "most original and informative program" of the year.
A number of individuals and organizations have asked that
Alaska be opened for the "refugees. " Secretary of the Interior Har-
old L. Ickes in a preliminary report made public recently pointed out
that lack of capital and limited transportation facilities now stand
in the way of developing the territory. The Department has not made
any recommendations, he said, with respect to specific settlement
plans, as the problem involves aspects of national defense and im-
migration completely beyond the jurisdiction of this Department.
Time marches on. And the Federal Government has discovered
airplanes are the most nearly accurate means of making a census of
antelope and wild life on its Southern Wyoming grazing districts.
According to reports, counting on horseback has never been as suc-
cessful as this first census made from the air, because the herds
always scatter so swiftly at the approach of a rider.
SENIOR CLASS AT CARSON AGENCY . NEVADA VISITS
SAN FRANCISCO FAIR
"You can get what
you want if you really want
That is the motto
of the senior class of the
Carson Indian School, Stew-
art, Nevada. The thirty-
four Indian boys and girls
wanted their annual class
trip in May to be a visit
to the Golden Gate Inter
Earning the first $50 by clearing ten
acres of ground.
national Exposition, particular-
ly to the Indian presentation in
the Federal Building where much
of their handcraft is on display.
But it would cost $500. Licked?
No sireee. 1
The first $5' came
when the boys cleared ten acres
of sagebrush. Next $50 from the
sale of hot dogs and hamburgers
at athletic events. Next $150
from washing and ironing clothes - a laundry project of the girls.
Sixty dollars from repairing automobiles, earned by the boys i n
the auto mechanics shop. At the end of six months
- $535. They are now working out a class song to
the tune of "California, Here I Come J"
The auto mechanics earning their $50
The girls earned their $50 by
washing and ironing.
Hot dogs - hamburgers
FIVE AWARDS IN COMPETITIVE EXHIBITION WON BY
INDIAN CONSTRUCTION UNIT
Navajo Council House
Entering their work for the first time in the annual exhi-
bition of the Association of Federal Architects, the architects in
the Indian Service captured five awards.
The Indian Service's construction division had only fifteen
items on display among the thousand entered by architects in other
governmental agencies, but the Indian booth was so colorfully deco-
rated, that it attracted many visitors.
Bright Indian blankets and rugs hung from the walls. A
totem pole and an animated diorama showing Navajo craftsmen at work
gave added interest to the displays. A photograph of the Navajo
Council House and the Navajo Agency headquarters at Window Rock in
Arizona, received first award in landscape design, and second award
The photograph is tinted deeply in the striking shades of
the Southwest Indian country. The huge rock ledge, with its natural
opening which gives the town of Window Rock its name, is seen in the
background. The colors are so shaded that one feels sunshine and
warmth coming through the opening in the rock. The opening seems
more comparable to a door than a "window. "
The photograph was presented by Roy H. Bradley, District
Supervisor of Construction in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It now hangs
embellished by two ribbons in the office of W. Barton Greenwood,
Chief Finance Officer and Business Manager in the Washington Of-
A second photograph, loaned by E. J. Armstrong, Assistant
Finance Officer, received third award in photography. Similar to the
subject above, the photograph is taken from a different angle and
shows only the Navajo Council House and the rock ledge with its win-
dow. To Milton Snow, a photographer at the Navajo Agency, goes cred-
A model of the Standing Rock Dormitory by Carl Cederstrand
won third award in architectural models. A two-story building,
which, in its general architectural motif is colonial in character,
the scale model is two and one-quarter inches high, ten inches long,
and four inches wide. The windows, which are about three-eighths by
five-eighths of an inch, have tiny bits of cellophane for window
panes with shades and drapes painted in behind the shining cello-
The Standing Rock Dormitory, which was completed a year
and a half ago, is similar to the dormitory buildings now under con-
struction at Tongue River Agency, Fort Berthold Agency and Crow Creek
The other individual prize winner, C. J. Poiesz, received
third aivard in oil painting for a landscape. Mr. Poiesz, an archi-
tectural engineer in the construction division, did his painting in
his spare time as did Mr. Cederstrand his model. Both assisted in
gathering the materials for display.
It was largely through the encouragement of Edward A. Poyn-
ton, Indian Service Director of Construction and a new member of the
Board of Directors of the Association of Federal Architects, that the
construction division entered the competition this year.
This eighth annual exhibition of the Association of Federal
Architects represented the work of individuals and bureaus within the
Federal Government in architectural models, design, rendering, photo-
graphy, water colors, oils, and other closely allied fields. It was
held in the National Museum, Washington, D. C. , during the month of
CATTLE RAISING ON THE SAN CARLOS RESERVATION IN ARIZONA
By Harry Stevens, CCC-ID Camp Assistant
In years past, to speak
of Indian cattle in Arizona,
was to speak of wild, off -col-
ored, scrubby stock, branded
from neck to rump, "burned",
as it were; hard to work, and
usually hard to find. Such is
not the case at the present
time, especially when the grade
of stock raised on the San Car-
los Apache Reservation is con-
cerned. The cattle grazed on
our reservation compare favor-
ably with the best grade of
Hereford stock in the entire
Southwest. The San Carlos A-
pache led the Indian Service
in the number s"old and gross
revenue derived therefrom in
1937. Almost 12,000 head were
sold for an average of $32 per
head. Instead of the weekly
ration issued to the captured
Indian by the Army commissary
in 1890, he now has a family
income of $731.00. But let us
go back a few years ago when
the Arizona Apaches were look-
ed upon as a war-like tribe,
killing and despoiling the
the Southwestern pioneer. Most
historical accounts dealing
with Indians in Arizona describe
the Apache as a "hideously cruel
and bloodthirsty" individual.
It appears from all accounts
that the Apache was not looked
upon as a potential and success-
The San Carlos Apache In-
dian Reservation was created by
Presidential Order, December 14,
1872. In this Order, Camp Grant
on the San Pedro River was abol-
ished and all Aravaipa Apaches
under their chief, Eskiminzin,
were moved to San Carlos in
March, 1873. The Chiricahua A-
paches numbering 325 moved to
San Carlos in 1876. This oc-
curred after the death of their
chief, Cochise. Approximately
1800 Indians were on the census
rolls, but from mismanagement
or frequent changes of Indian
agents, there were constant
troubles, desertions and re-
captures. Though the presence
of many different and mutually
hostile bands made it necessary
that they be segregated in dis-
tant camps, there was no serious
trouble with the masses; the In-
dian police rendered good serv-
ices and good progress was re-
ported in small tract gardening
in 1875- In 1879, the popula-
tion increased to ^,652. This
was due to other bands from oth-
er parts of the Territory being
moved to San Carlos.
In 1830, the renegade
chiefs, Geronimo and Juh, with
108 Chiricahuas were brought
in from old liexico. It was at
this time that Vittorio, vrith
Ifi other Chiricahua Apaches
escaped to avoid the transfer
to San Carlos and did bloody
work in Mexico. Later he was
killed by Mexicans during one
of his raids in Mexico.
The Beginning Of The Cattle Industry At San Carlos
Bancroft, in his "Hist ory
of Arizona and New Mexico"
said: "As to the general pros-
pects of the reservation In-
dians of all tribes, they can-
not be said to be very encour-
aging. A mountainous, min ing
country, where white men can
hardly be made to behave them-
selves, is not fit to be an In-
dian reservation. " But it did
not take the white man long to
find out that the reservation
was fit for one thing and that
one thing was grazing. Early
in the nineties, the Chiricahua
Cattle Company obtained a per-
mit to graze 200 head of cat-
tle on the Ash Flat range, to
the north of what is now Fort
Thomas. More and more big cow
outfits moved in. By 1920,
five-eighths of the reservation
was under lease to white cattle
growers. The best watered and
choicest Dart of the reserva-
tion was included in these five-
Then came James B. Kitch,
since retired, and with him in
1923 came a new era for the A-
paches. Expired grazing leases
were not renewed. Considerable
pressure was brought to bear
through Washington channels to
have the leases renewed, but
Jim Kitch and the Apaches were
successful in their stand.
At the present time, there
are no white cattle growers
leasing grazing land from the
Apaches, and it is the inten-
tion of the adminis tra tion
that there will be none in the
We have now what is gen-
erally recognized as the larg-
est registered herd of Here-
fords in the Southwest. Some
600 registered Herefords were
purchased during the drought
in 1934 by the government for
Checking Cattle After Roundup
the San Carlos Indians. The
number has increased to 1200.
Registration will be kept on
400 of these and the balance
will be used as a breeding
herd for reimbursable heifers.
Young male Indians over
21 years of age, of good char-
acter and desirous of going in-
to the cattle business are
chosen by the Tribal Council
annually, as recipients of 20
head of choice yearling heif-
ers. The young Indian is giv-
en ample time to repay the
tribe for these heifers, and
as sales are made from off-
spring steers under his brand,
a small semi-annual payment is
taken. The registered and
purebred herd is owned by the
tribe. Other cattle on the
reservation are owned by indi-
vidual Indians, there being
about 600 brands totaling 25,
000 head of cattle. In the
recent dispersal of the famous
Painter Hereford herd in Colo-
rado, Domino C366, reputedly
one of the top bulls in the
nation, was sold to the San
Carlos Indians. In the same
bargain one of his yearling
also came to
Interested Cattle Owners During Counting
For many years, we have
been buying registered bulls
for replacement on the various
ranges, but with the acquisi-
tion of such prize animals as
Domino C366 and his offspring,
we plan on raising on our own.
These two bulls will be bred
with the select of our regis-
tered females and we plan to
take the best part of Ash Flat
range as a strictly registered
herd pasture, it being the
most accessible and choicest.
In fact, the Tribal Council
has just passed an ordinance
to that effect. Artificial
insemination is being studied
b y our stockmen w i th the
thought in mind of extending
the usefulness of these two
great sires. Naturally, all
pertinent information r e la-
tive to artificial insemina-
tion will be taught to the
Indians. All other phases of
good stock raising have been
Since the inception of
Indian Emergency Conservation
Work on the San Carlos Reser-
vation, the projects accom-
plished will be those which
will greatly aid in the work-
ing of cattle. Over 1+00 miles
of boundary and range division
fences have been built, almost
100 earthen and concrete water
tanks have been constructed,
stock drives cleared, springs
and wells developed. These
emergency appropriations have
given the Apaches a new lease
on life. The work has taken
him to all sections of his
domain, it has given him added
income, and a greater realiza-
tion of the possibilities of
self-support. The San Carlos
Apache already has self-govern-
ment, given to him through the
Reorganization Act of 1934
(Wheele r-Howard Bill ) . All
tribal affairs are controlled
by a representative tribal
council composed of seven e-
lected members of the tribe,
one of which serves as chair-
man. Indian Emergency Conser-
vation Work came just at the
time when the cattle working
facilities were badly in need
Bus ine s s -Like Methods Used By The Indians
In The Management Of Their Cattle Industry
The reservation grazing
area is. divided into 15 dis-
tinct or associated ranges.
Clans, or family groups, have
been assigned each range, and
cattle associations with elec-
tive officers at their head
have been formed. It has been
the practice of the San Carlos
Apaches to sell or butcher all
undesirable animals running on
the range. All scrubby, off-
colored and inferior stock is
disposed of as soon as they
are rounded up. Each cattle
association takes on the work-
ing appearance of a large cat-
tle ranch, or better yet, a
cooperative livestock organi-
zation. Roundups are held each
spring and fall; calves brand-
ed; steers dehorned; ine cutting
out of cattle offered for sale;
and repairs made to cattle as-
sociation equipment. C u rrent
market prices greatly determine
the class of cattle offered for
sale. Invitations to bid are
sent to the most reputable cat-
tle buyers of the Southwest.
Sale cattle are divided into
various classes and bids re-
ceived for each lot, either
by head or pound. Bids are
opened, read, and sold to the
highest bidder when all cattle
association members owning
cattle in the sale herd have
agreed that the price offered
At a September sale of
1900 head, ^00 head of year-
ling dehorned steers brought
a top price of $37.96. This
year the Indian Office has not
yet notified us of our compar-
ative standing with other res-
ervations in the number sold
and average price received,
but we feel sure that our
standing will be about the
same as in 1937. For 1938, we
have sold almost 11,000 head
for an average of $32 per head.
A grazing fee of $5 per head
sold is deducted on every head
from each cattle check made
out to the Indian cattle owner.
Roundup chuck, the pay of round-
up expenses are paid from this
fund. The purchase of salt
and cottonseed cake for bull
feed is also paid from this
As yet, the cattle manage-
ment plan is not perfected.
Though leading the Indian
Service in the number sold and
money taken in, several phases
of our program are to be en-
larged. About ^00 of the 700
families on the reservation
are numbered as cattle owners.
What to do with the remaining
300 is the big problem facing
the tribal leaders. The Trib-
al Council has just passed an
ordinance setting off a big
portion of the eastern range
as a tribal herd pasture. The
plan will be to graze a herd
of approximately 5,000 head of
cattle for the benefit of all
members of the tribe over 65
and not cattle owners, and
for those who are widows, or-
phans, crippled or blind. The
San Carlos Apache is endeavor-
ing to establish his own so-
UNUSUAL INDIAN MURALS COMPLETED BY MAYNARD DIXON
The American Indian pictured neither as a scalping "sav-
age", nor as a member of a dying race "at the end of the trail",
but as a vital human being passing through the transitions required
by the invasion of an overwhelming foreign civilization; this is the
portrayal of Indian life in the murals of Maynard Dixon, just put on
view in the Indian Office section of the new Department of the In-
Mr. Dixon, an old friend and a staunch advocate of the In-
dian, was chosen from a large field of aspirants for the difficult
and exacting task of painting the Indian as he is today, and as he
was at the close of the period of military conquest.
The murals represent the passing of the old regime for
the Indian and the beginning of the new era. In the first group,
a scout, carrying a Sharp's rifle and a soldier resting on his aword
faces two Indians. One Indian has. a war club, the other a pipe of
peace. The figures are silhouetted against a broad sweep of West-
ern prairie sky. Above them clouds are forming, thickening towards
the West. Symbolically, a herd of buffalo are disappearing into the
In the second mural, the white man is depicted teaching
the Indians the arts of peace and civilization. A farm agent holds
a handful of soil, explaining to an Indian boy, new agricultural
methods and techniques, while his parents, representing the former
culture, look on. The old Indian is dressed in overalls, but has
the moccasins, long hair and blanket of his ancestors. The older
people are suspicious and hold aloof. But the young boy has already
the close-cut hair and shoes of the new generation, is eager to learn
and to benefit from the white man's experience. A wooden barn re-
places the buffalo. A single stalk of corn towers over the old In-
dian's head, showing the reliance of the Indian on the fecundity of
the soil in his present-day economy. Again the figures are silhouetted
against a broad yellow sky and the dark stretch of cloud has some-
The concept of these two murals shows Mr. Dixon's unusual
understanding of Indian psychology and life. The faces of the In-
dians are a composite of many Indian traits and characteristics, for
Mr. Dixon is one of the few outstanding painters who combine authen-
tic art with a deep knowledge of the Indian. During the last fifty
years, he has been among Indians from Canada to Mexico , the Black -
feet , Flatheads . Nez Perces . Paiute, Shoshone , Hopi, Navajo and Pueb-
lo Indians. He has an intimate familiarity with their ways and has
been the only white witness at numerous ceremonials.
Maynard Dixon began his work on a newspaper in San Fran-
cisco, also making illustrations for Western fiction and leading
magazines. His paintings, interpreting the life and country of the
West, hang in the foremost galleries of the West - the San Francisco
Museum of Art, the de Young Museum of San Francisco, the Southwest
Museum, Los Angeles , and the Pasadena Art Institute. His murals
decorate the Arizona-Biltmore Hotel in Phoenix, the Mark Hopkins
Hotel in San Francisco , the reading room of the California State
Library in Sacramento . the San Francisco Office of the U. S. Build-
ing and Loan Association, Fremont High School, Los Angeles ? and two
walls, Grass Lands and Plowed Lands, 60 x 100 feet, at the Golden
Gate International Exposition at Treasure Island.
Mr. Dixon has been a zealous and articulate crusader for
Indian betterment over a period of many years, both as an artist
and as an active member of the American Indian Defense Association.
HERMAN W. JOHANNES RESIGNS AS MANAGER OF
MENOMINEE INDIAN MILLS IN WISCONSIN
The resignation of Herman W. Johannes as Manager of the
Menominee Indian Kills at Neopit, Wisconsin has been announced by
the Secretary of the Interior, Harold L. Ickes.
Acceptance of the resignation, Secretary IcKes explained,
followed Mr. Johannes' request that he be relieved of his post to ac-
cept private employment.
"It is with real regret that I have accepted the resigna-
tion of Mr. Johannes," Secretary Ickes said. "During his administra-
tion since September 1935, the Mills have been operated at a substan-
tial profit to the Menominee Indians. "
INDIANS AND INDIAN MATTERS AS GLIMPSED IN THE DAILY PRESS
By Doris C. Brodt
(Editor's Note: The following digest of newspaper clip-
pings on subjects concerning Indians and the Indian Service is in-
tended only to present a sampling of the varied material clipped
from daily papers. Clippings received from Indian country and from
the metropolitan dailies still do not constitute a complete coverage
but the items briefed here may serve as a representative selection.
In most cases the items appeared in a large number of newspapers,
but to save space and avoid duplication, only one paper is mentioned
in each case. It is hoped that similar digests will appear in "In-
dians at Work" from time to time.
Out of over 300 treaties of our forefathers with the Red-
skins, there have arisen against the Government claims for more than
five billions of dollars and scores of disputes. Hunting and fishing
rights of Washington and Oregon Indians; alleged claim to the bed of
the Niagara River by New York Indians; attempted employment of Arizo-
na Indians of white men to kill bears, which are destroying large
numbers of cattle on the Fort Apache Reservation; lawfully unlicensed
dogs of California Indians killing sheep of the local sheepmen; dec-
laration of independence from New York State Government by the Sen-
ecas of New York State; the technical existence of warfare between
the Federal Government and the Florida Seminoles; and the unsettled
state of battle between the New York State Indians and Germany - all
constitute reasons for the innumerable disputes with the Government.
Baltimore , Md . Evening Sun . 5-31-39 .
The Indian population is on the increase. While better
conditions have been provided, the increase in population has over-
balanced the economic betterment afforded the Indians. They will
work. The Government is encouraging them to use their land for farm-
ing and cattle raising so they can help raise themselves above a mere
subsistence level. Lansing , Michigan . Journal . 5-2-39 .
Superintendent Alida C. Bowler was appointed by Secretary
of Labor Perkins to membership on a Conference on Children in a Dem-
ocracy, organized by President Roosevelt. Because of her wide ex-
perience in child work, having been connected for several years with
the Children's Bureau, Miss Bowler is especially well-fitted for
membership in the Conference. San Francisco , Cal. Chronicle . 5-5-39 .
The Navajo Tribal Council decided to apply for a Federal
loan of $$0,000 for the sawmill project and an amount for the flour
mill. The Council proposed to secure the loans by tribal funds and
make repayments from profits of the mills. Albuquerque , N. M . Jour -
nal . 5-20-39 .
Extension of social disease control work among Indians is
to be furthered by the cooperation of the Health Department and the
Indian Service, as the result of a conference of these agencies,
called at the request of United States Surgeon General Thomas Parran.
Albuquerque , N. M . Tribune . 5-19-39 .
Because of inaccessibility to office records and because
of the expense involved, Renresentative D. A. Reed, Republican from
New York, protested against moving the Office of Indian Affairs from
Salamanca, New York, to Buffalo. Assistant Secretary Chapman assured
Honorable Reed that consideration would be given this protest. New
York, N. Y. Herald-Tribune . 5-25-39 .
Action has been taken to prevent the WPA from destroying
the famous Indian mound at McKees Rocks Borough, long a mecca for
student and archaeological expeditions and one of Western Pennsyl-
vania's best-known sight-seeing spots of invaluable historical in-
terest. WPA aims to dynamite the mound for stones for use on a road
project. Pittsburgh, Pa . Press . 5-23-39 .
The Navajo Tribal Council has accepted a grant of $32,750
from the Farm Security Administration for erection of facilities at
the annual tribal fair, for Indian homes and for aid to destitute In-
dians. The council also approved a five-year lease to a Pittsburgh
mining firm for the development of a vanadium deposit on the Navajo
Reservation. Meeting the problems of trachoma and dentistry among
Indians was discussed by Dr. W. W. Peter, Navajo Medical Director.
Phoenix , Arizona . Journal . 5-17-39 .
The 1939 graduating class of the Phoenix Indian School is
representative of Indian boys and girls of 12 Southwestern Indian
tribes. Graduates majored variously in painting, masonry, agricul-
ture, plumbing, carpentry, printing, auto mechanics, electricity and
home economics. Phoenix. Arizona . Republic . 5-18-39 .
The Navajo Tribal Council at a meeting held recently, gave
no indication that it would file an appeal in the Arizona tribal test
suit, upholding the Federal Government's right to restrict livestock
grazing on a reservation. A resolution was approved by the Council
limiting future filling station or trading post permits to Indians.
Revision of the Indian Service law enforcement code was also studied
by the Council. Phoenix, Arizona . Republic . 5-18-39 .
The Government is carrying on extensive experiments to de-
termine the breed of sheep that will yield the greatest quantity and
best quality of wool for Navajo blankets. At the Southwestern Range
and Sheep Breeding Laboratory on the Navajo Reservation, Navajo women
make rugs from varieties of wool fibers differently processed. Im-
proved breeding methods are also being used. To test the durability
of the different types of wool, several of the rugs have been placed
upon the floor of the cafeteria of the Interior Department. Boston ,
Mass. Christian Science Monitor . 5-22-39 .
Picture of Mabel Burnside, Navajo Indian of Fort Wingate,
New Mexico, showing her dyeing and art work to Kathleen Norris, the
famous novelist, at the Indian Exhibit at the San Francisco Fair.
San Francisco, California. San Francisco Examiner . 5-16-39 .
The thirty-five members of the graduating class of the Car-
son Indian School's high school were taken to the San Francisco
World's Fair. Funds for the trip were earned by the students.)
Reno, Nevada . Gazette . 5-16-39 . 5-17-39 .
Discovery of a mound containing a number of Indian relics,
presumably of prehistoric Hopewell Indians, was made at North Benton,
Ohio, by Richard G. Morgan, Curator of Archaeology for the Ohio State
Museum. Cleveland. Ohio. Cleveland Plain Dealer . 5-10-39 .
Indian students of the Carson Indian School and students in
Carson and Stewart granmar and high schools, showing a surprising a-
mount of talent, will enter an art contest, it was announced by the
Nevada Art Association. Carson City , Nevada . Appeal . 5-12-39 .
Representative Burdick proposed, in a House joint resolu-
tion, that "The Rescue", an 87-year-old statue on the Capitol steps,
depicting a frontiersman rescuing a white woman and child from an In-
dian, be removed. It is a "constant reminder of ill will toward the
Indian," Mr. Burdick complains. Washington. D. C. Washington Post .
Because they feared such an act would indicate an obliga-
tion on their part toward the Government, thereby cancelling the
tribe's traditional non-peace with the Government, the Seminole In-
dians of Florida sought to cash WPA pay checks without endorsement.
Tampa, Florida . Tribune . 6-4-39.
Seneca Indians declare their independence from New York
State laws governing crime, hunting and fishing and highway traffic,
etc., which they hold are not applicable to them as wards of the
Federal Government. The Council of Chiefs, these Indians maintain,
is best qualified to direct internal affairs of the Seneca Nation.
Washington , D. C. Washington Post . 5-8-39 .
Governor Bottolfesen of Idaho attended a social at the Buf-
falo Lodge ceremonial hall on the Fort Hall Reservation. Speaking to
the Indians of the Shoshone and Bannock Tribes, the Governor com-
mended them highly as farmers, businessmen and upright and loyal cit-
izens of the county. Blackf oot , Idaho . Daily Bulletin . 5-3-39 .
As the result of a conference of Indians, Indian Office of-
ficials and Federal and State authorities, determination will be made
in Federal Court as to state jurisdiction over the Indians in the
matter of license fees for fishing. The Indians insist, because of
ancient treaties, upon permission to take fish from state waters
without paying for the privilege. ' Spokane , Washington . Daily Chron-
icle . 5-31-39.
A recent bulletin of the Smithsonian Institution reports
that the Yaruros, a primitive tribe of Venezuelan Indians, have as
their only consolation in life the event of death, which they believe
is a wonderful time of material plenty and reunion with their dead
relatives. Was h ington , D. C . Herald . 5-13-39 .
Nevada Indians occupied feature positions in the Sacramento
three-day parade and rodeo celebration. Reno f Nevada. Gazette .
5-8-39. "" ,
The distribution of a stumpage dividend of $6^,000 is being
made to the Menominee Indian Tribe in Wisconsin, on a per capita
basis among the Tribe's enrollment. Madison . Wisconsin . Times .
Cheyenne, Wyoming, may have a group of Indians, located in
an Indian village, as a permanent summer attraction for tourists.
Depending upon definite arrangements as to the price the Indians will
demand, it is estimated that 12 to 20 Shoshone s and Arapahos from the
Wind River Reservation will participate. Cheyenne . Wyoming . Trib-
une . 5-16-39 .
Indian CCC enrollees at Pierre, South Dakota, celebrated
the sixth anniversary of the Civilian Conservation Corps. Speeches
on the value of the CCC-ID organization, games and dancing were en-
joyed by more than 75 guests. Washington . D. C. Happy Days . 5-6-39 .
Nez Perce Indians, in tribal regalia, featured in the dedi-
cation ceremonies of the Lewiston-Clarkston Bridge. Spokane , Wash-
ington . Spokane Daily Chronicle . 5-25-39 .
The Consolidated Chippewa Agency Tribal Council, meeting
with new officers, outlined the following five-point program: to
provide permanent child health camps and a CCC camp for Chippewa In-
dian children this summer; to assure WPA sewing projects which would
furnish work for Indian women and free clothing for needy Indians,
would be continued; to give Minnesota Chippewas $75,000 for a 1939
road program to obtain seed for 1939 planting from the Extension and
Credit Departments of the Indian Service; to have Nay-Tah-Wash, Oni-
gum, Nett Lake and Inger included in next year's school appropria-
tion. Duluth, Minnesota . News -Tribune . 5-9-39 .
A memorial to Tsali, Cherokee Indian hero, will be erected
with funds raised by Knoxville school children at Gatlinburg, Ten-
nessee. Chattanooga . Tennessee . News . 5-15-39 .
A KICKAPOO WAR VETERAN TELLS HIS STORY
By Richard Simon, Full-Blood
Portable Rock Crusher Operating On Surface
Project. Kickapoo Reservation, Oklahoma
the p a st
I have been
s u b-f oreman
on road work
on the Kick-
diction o f
i n Kan s as.
year, w i th
the help of Mr. Martin D. Cheadle, the farm agent, I was fortunate
in getting a farm loan. This, I considered a first step toward
self-support. 1 had hard luck by losing two horses, a cow and a
brood sow, but I raised a good crop and in spite of this loss 1 was
able to pay $150 on my loan and 1 still have about 300 bushels of
corn and about 10 tons of hay.
My grown son helped me farm and 1 was able to get in e-
nough work to help with the family groceries - otherwise the loss
of so much stock would have hurt a lot when 1 had to pay the rent.
My wife canned over 100 quarts of vegetables and fruit and we al-
so sold about $4.00 worth of butter and eggs each week.
The road program is helping in many ways to rehabilitate
our Indians. Our surfacing projects are making good roads to
schools, to stores, to churches, and to the market. We used to be
in the mud all the time when it rained. Now when we have to go
places, we can go. It also helps the mail carrier.
I wish to take this opportunity to express my sincere st
thanks to each member of the Potawatomi Indian Agency staff. They
have made it possible for me to give my family some of the finer
things in life which I think are so important to a good home.
INDIANS AT BED LAKE . MINNESOTA. MEET PROBLEMS OF A CHANGING WORLD
By Mary M. Kirkland, Social Worker,
Clarence W. Ringey, Farm Agent
(Editor's Note: This is the concluding part of an
article on the Chippewa Indians of Red Lake Reservation.
Part One appeared in May.
Saving The Land
A careful soil study indicates that the western portion
of the reservation is particularly suitable for grasses, grains and
legumes, and these can be grown here very successfully.
The result of a survey taken during 1936 and 1937, in
which 26 farmers in neighboring territory were requested to fill out
questionnaires, is enlightening in that it reveals that 18 out of
the 26 farmers questioned have lived on their present sites for 26
years or longer. Only one out of this group has ever received re-
lief in any form and he was paid from relief money because of the
fact that he used his own truck on a small gravel job. The rea-
sons for choosing these particular sites were disclosed: the pro-
ductiveness of the land; the fact that the land is easily prepared
for crops and the desire for more good farm land. The vegetation
in this area is especially suitable for grazing and many of these
farmers have found it financially beneficial to engage in the rais-
ing of livestock.
One of these farmers farmed on the reservation as early as
1916. Others learned of the possibilities, and each year saw an in-
creasing interest being taken in the agricultural area of the reser-
vation. In 1932, five new farmers came to the reservation, and in
1935 ten other new farmers made use of the opportunity to engage in
The principal crops grown by these farmers are flax, bar-
ley, sweet clover and alfalfa. These are good cash crops and t he
adjacent area has created a good reputation and is recognized as the
leading sweet clover seed producing area in the world.
The great demand for the use of reservation lands by white
farmers made it evident that a program might be developed in favor
of the Red Lake Indians. The tribal council approved a leasing pro-
gram whereby white farmers could obtain a legal permit of from one
to five years on land to be leased for agricultural purposes.
Thirty-eight bids were received for land permits, of which
we now have in force twenty-three bonded permits, with approved
cropping programs that do not deplete soil fertility. The minimum
rental is 25 per cent of the crop delivered to market. This program
results in the proper preparation and farming of land by experienced
farmers, the proceeds of which are deposited in the tribal fund. As
a result, when we have a qualified Indian who wishes to make use of
some of his land, he is given the opportunity to take over this land
at the expiration of the lease and he will have a farm that has
been properly prepared and is in good condition to bring profitable
returns during average years.
As mentioned before, the Chippewa Indian is not agricul-
turally inclined and has not to date responded to this program. The
great amount of available employment tends to discourage agricultur-
al pursuits. Few of the present adults who have become very wage-
conscious are expected to choose farming as a career voluntarily be-
cause they are not accustomed to assuming such responsibility.
Hope Lies In The Coming Generation
Our great hope lies in the generation that is now active
in 4-H Club work, as members and students of the Smith Hughs Depart-
ment in our well-equipped agricultural high school. These young
people, when they leave school, are equipped with a sufficient back-
ground and instilled with a desire to make their livelihoods from
the large area of agricultural land at their disposal. This group
of youngsters has already shown more interest in agriculture than
has been shown by any group since the beginning of commercial fish-
It is further planned to educate the Smith Hughs students
in a practical way, by having them work and manage a large diversi-
fied farm during their Smith Hughs training. In this way they will
graduate with a complete knowledge, as a result of this practical
experience, and will have proven their ability before they embark on
their life.' s career.
There are approximately 600 children of school age on the
Red Lake Reservation. The educational facilities on this reserva-
tion consist of three .elementary schools, one vocational high school
and one Catholic mission school. The educational program for In-
dians in the State of Minnesota is operated by the State, by con-
tract with the Federal Government. There are no government schools
in Minnesota with the exception of one boarding school at Pipestone.
The Red Lake High School is a fully equipped and accredited voca-
tional school with the Smith Hughs Department of Agriculture and
Home Economics. The aim of the vocational agricultural department
is to produce some agriculturally-minded and agriculturally-trained
boys who will utilize the lands which at present are either not be-
ing used, or are being leased by neighboring white farmers. Tnia
program will be
elude evening school
for those actively en-
gaged in farming and
w i 11 supervise farm
practices of all voca-
tional students. The
agriculture studen t s
at the Red Lake High
School are members of
the Future Farmers of
A me ri ca Association.
The home economi c s
course coincides with
the vocational a gri-
cultural program a s
much as possible.
Second And Third Grade Group.
Ponemah Public School
Red Lake Conducts Extensive CCC Program
There is an extensive CCC program on this reservation which
has contributed much toward the development and toward the long life,
of the Red Lake timber by the construction of truck trails, lookout
towers, blister-rust control and reforestation projects. In addition
to this work, there is an extensive educational program for CCC-ID
enrollees. During the past year, evening courses have been offered
in general mechanics, forestry, cooking, woodworking, drafting, map-
making, first-aid and agriculture at the Red Lake High School. These
classes have been taught by members of the school faculty and by mem-
bers of the CCC-ID personnel.
The greatest handicap in the educational program has been
the constant turnover of men and it has not been possible to keep
one group throughout the completion of a course and have them con-
tinue to a more advanced type of work.
The lumbering and fishing industries do not provide suffi-
cient employment for all employable persons on the Red Lake Reserva-
tion, and as an outgrowth of this condition, there are a number of
social and economic problems.
The greatest economic problem comes from the fact that
most of the employment is seasonal, and during the spring and sum-
mer months there is sufficient employment for everyone, but in the
late fall and winter the problem becomes acute. There is a lack of
realization on the part of the Indian that it is possible for him to
maintain the same standard of living throughout the year. It is
safe to say that most of the social problems grow out of poor eco-
nomic conditions and conditions common to any racial group which is
in a transitory state.
The Future Lies In Conservation
The future of the Red Lake Reservation lies in the conser-
vation of its natural resources and in the development of its poten-
tial ones. This can be done by educating the Indian to the realiza-
tion that his total dependency upon the natural resources which are
now available, fishing and lumbering, will at best provide a stan-
dard of living which fluctuates between affluence and privation;
whereas by educating him to utilize the potential resources - the
agricultural lands - his standard of living will be more or less
equalized throughout the year, while, at the same time, become pro-
gressively better. With the natural resources to augment his in-
come and food supply, the Indian can eventually become independent
of outside assistance.
he Tah Ge Shig Of Ponemah Raises Excellent Corn.
Red Lake, Minnesota.
The vacationing automobile traveler this summer may be
pleased to know that representative sections of Mount Rainier Na-
tional Park , in Southern Washington , are now accessible to him over
good roads, and that comfortable hotels, cabins and camp grounds
have been provided at four different centers in scenic sections.
Expecting a large increase over the seven million visitors to the
27 national parks in 1938, the National Park Service has opened high-
ways in Yellowstone, Glacier and other parks earlier this year than
THE RIGHT REVEREND MONSIGNOR WILLIAM HUGHES DIES
By Reverend J. B. Tennelly,
Director, Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions
Father Hughes, as he was affectionately known to thousands
of Indians and to hundreds of Catholic missionaries and workers in
the Indian Service, ended his strenuous life on May 6, 1939, in a
hospital at Long Beach, California.
Twenty-five years of his life had been spent in almost con-
tinuous service to the Indians and to the Catholic Indian missions,
with the exception of his brief service as U. S. Army Chaplain with
the 335th Field Artillery, 87th Division, during the World War, and
with the Army of Occupation in Germany after the Armistice. Shortly
after his ordination to the priesthood in 1905, he was placed in
charge of the Mission Indians on the Soboba, Cahuilla and Los Coyotes
Reservations in California.
From that time dated his life-long interest in the spiritu-
al and temporal welfare of the Indians. Not only was he from the
first a zealous pastor, but he also actively joined with the few
friends of the Mission Indians of California in efforts to protect
them from heartless encroachments upon their few remaining rights.
He was appointed Assistant Director of the Bureau of Cath-
olic Indian Missions in Washington, D. C, in 1910, and Director in
1921, an office which he filled until 1935, when his resignation
caused deep regret to his many co-workers and countless friends.
Father Hughes' championship of Indian rights never flagged,
although he always put it second in importance to his duty, as repre-
sentative of the Church, to promote the religious welfare of the In-
dians entrusted to his pastoral care, and later, to his supervision
of general Catholic mission interests. Between the two, the Indian's
temporal and his religious welfare, he saw no conflict of interests,
but regarded them rather as genuine correlatives. This was the key-
note of his program of action.
His great and tireless effort was naturally the maintenance
of the seventy Catholic Indian day and boarding schools, together
with other religious activities on eighty-one reservations in the
United States and Alaska.
Along with this was his persevering and successful aim to
promote friendly relations and cooperation between the Catholic mis-
sionaries and the Indian Service. He, himself, was the embodiment of
this friendly spirit of cooperation. He enthusiastically welcomed
the program of Indian we If are outlined in the Heriam Survey and the
provisions of the wheeler-Howard Act for Indian rehabilitation which
attempted to carry it out. He endeavored to explain to the Catholic
workers among the Indians and to the Catholic public the practical
working of this program and to secure for it their interest and co-
operation, believing, as he did, that it offered great opportunities
and advantages to the Indians.
Father Hughes' endowments of heart, mind and will enabled
him to serve well both his Church and the Indians. His genuine in-
terest in Indians, his understanding of their problems, his personal
uprightness and singleness of purpose, his friendliness and his abil-
ity to understand others' points of view, won him the abiding con-
fidence and respect of his co-workers in the Indian mission field, of
men and women in the Indian Service, and of the Catholic people in
this country, Indians and whites alike. He justly deserves to be
remembered among those who have labored long, enthusiastically and
unselfishly for and with the Indians.
OLD DAYS AND TRADITIONS LIVED AGAIN BY WESTERN SHOSHONE
( NEVADA ) INDIANS IN ANNUAL JULY ENCAMPMENT AT OWYHEE
Every year during the week of the Fourth of July, each
Paiute and Shoshone Indian family, with bag and baggage, is loaded
into the family wagon and moved to a selected spot along the river
bottom. Here they pitch camp, under the direction of a camp fore-
man who arranges the tee'pees in a semi-circular formation with the
opening to the East. This particular arrangement is to permit the
sun, their ancient Creator, to enter their encampment each morning
and watch over them throughout the day.
During the daytime, horse racing, bucking horses, calf-
roping, and other games of skill on horseback are featured. With
the approach of night, all families return to their camps to cook
and eat their evening meal. After darkness has overtaken the camp,
everyone joins in the many forms of recreation enjoyed by their fore-
fathers. The children gather in the darkness and amuse themselves
with childish pranks. The young people gather in the center of the
camp grounds where they amuse themselves with, the old tribal dances
accompanied by the rhythm of the tom-tom. The older people sit in
sociable groups and play the ancient stick game until the wee hours
of the morning.
After a week of recreation through enjoyment of old trib-
al customs, : the Indian again returns to the white man's customs of
abode and earning a living. ( Excer pt from Western Shoshone Annual
Report . )
ALMOST ONE HUNDRED INDIAN GROUPS HAVE ADOPTED NSW CONSTITUTIONS
As this issue goes to press, the number of tribes having
adopted constitutions under the Indian Reorganization Act approaches
the hundred mark. The Quartz Valley Indians are ninety-eighth on the
list, and two other tribal elections on constitutions are pending.
The following recent elections have been reported:
Three tribes, mentioned below, who have just voted over-
whelmingly to apply for charters of incorporation under the Act bring
the total number of chartered tribes up to 70. Other elections are
The Manchester (California) Indians rejected an amendment
to extend the term of office to two years instead of one, but ap-
proved a second amendment to give their tribal council the right to
expell any member of the council for neglect of duty or misconduct.
Amendments passed by the Oneida Indians of Wisconsin were
similar to those acted on by the Manchester Group, simply clarifying
difficulties encountered in constitutional procedure.
Here are the tabulations of these elections:
May 9 Quartz Valley Indians of California
(Hoopa Valley Agency) 7
April 13 Thlopthlocco Indians of Oklahoma
(Five Civilized Tribes Agency) 80 1
May 24 Alabama and Quassarte Indians of Oklahoma
(Five Civilized Tribes Agency) 36 3
June 2 Ottowa Indians of Oklahoma
(Quapaw Agency) 79 1
Amendments To Constitutions :
April 22 Manchester Indians of California
(Sacramento Agency) #1- 9 15
#2- 18 6
June 3 Oneida Indians of Wisconsin
(Tomah Agency) #1-24.6 10
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TELEPHONE POLES FOR CCC-ID
By Patrick Gray, Logging Engineer
Looking Across Lake Pend O'reiiie To The
Mountains Of Northern Idaho Where Many
Cedar Poles Are Grovring.
the e s sentials
for efficient ad-
ministration o n
I n d ian re s e rva-
tions is a meth-
od whereby quick
be mainta ined
w it h o u tlying
The modern tele-
phone line , sup-
plemented o c ca-
sionally by radio
ly fills this need, and accordingly, many hundreds of miles of tele-
phone lines have been built by CCC-ID enrollees.
The old lines, many of them strung along fence posts and
repaired with baling wire, are a thing of the past, and have been
supplanted with well-engineered and constructed lines, using treated
poles and high grades of wire.
In Northern Idaho, the soil and climatic conditions have
united to produce a tree - Western Red Cedar - famous for its dura-
bility, and possessing sufficient strength to be ideal for use as a
telephone pole. Many poles have been purchased in this locality for
use by the Indian Service. Before being accepted and paid for, each
pole is examined to see that it meets with the required specifica-
tions as to length, diameter and freedom from defects. After this
has been done, the pole is shaved clean of all bark, for a distance
of two feet below and one foot above the ground line - the most
vulnerable part - and this shaved portion is then incised, holes be-
ing punched to a depth of three-eighths of an inch, either with a
heavy hammer with protruding teeth, or by a machine adapted for the
purpose. The pole is then placed in a tank containing hot creosote
oil. This treatment is followed by a cold oil bath. Poles are
then tested, using an increment borer, to determine if there is suf-
ficient penetration of the oil in the wood. The poles are then
loaded on cars to be shipped by railroad to the point where they are
needed. These inspections are usually made by a member of the Re-
gional Office forestry staff.
WIDE VARIETY OF RECENT PUBLICATIONS REVEAL DEEP INTEREST
IN INDIAN SUBJECTS
Lists Of Important Books And Articles Will Be Published
Periodic ally As A Service To Readers Of " Indians At Work "
By Elizabeth Morison
As an indication of the widespread interest in Indian mat-
ters, the following long list of recent publications tells its own
story. This diverse compilation of periodicals and books dealing
with Indians represents an extremely wide public and covers a great
many types of writing, from children's publications, art magazines,
and social studies, to medical, socio-political treatises and his-
torical and archaeological findings. Geographically the material is
equally diverse, stretching as it does from the Red Eagles of the
Pacific Northwest to the Andean life of South America.
It is the aim of "Indians At Work" to present, in each is-
sue, if possible, a summary guide to the best writings on Indian
subjects. As a further service to our readers, we will endeavor to
obtain, upon request, information about publications not included
in these lists.
Indians In Periodical Literature
AMONG THE INDIANS IN NORTH DAKOTA. T. A. Simpson. Missionary Re-
view of the World. 62:253-4. May 1939.
ANENT UNIPEDS. R. L. Ives. American Anthropologist. 41:336. April
APPEAL OF PEYOTE AS A MEDICINE. R. E. Schultes. American Anthro-
pologist. 40:698-715. October 1938; Reply W. La Barre.
41:340-2. April 1939.
ART PLUS HISTORY. L. D. Poole. School Arts. 184-6. February 1939.
CEREMONIAL DANCES AND COUP STICKS. Drawings and Instructions. W. B.
Hunt. Indian Arts and Vocational Education. 28-254. June
CHEROKEE CLAN. A study in Acculturation. Leonard Bloom. American
Anthropologist. 41:266-8. April 1939.
CHEYENNE ROACH: Drawings and Instructions. W. B. Hunt. Indian Arts
and Vocational Education. 28:210-11. May 1939.
CONVERSION OF A PAGAN AMERICAN. L. B. Janowsky. Missionary Review
of the World. 62:77-9. February 1939.
CULTURAL PATTERNS IN MODERN MEXICO. Manuel Gamio. Quarterly Journal
of Inter-American Relations. April 1939.
DAYS OF THE WEEK IN THE LANGUAGE OF TAOS PUEBLO, NEW MEXICO. G. L.
Trager. Language 15:51-5. January 1939.
FIRST IN THE LAND. J. Montagnes. Canadian Magazine. 91:38. April
FRANCISCANS RETURN TO ZUNI. E. C. Parsons. American Anthropologist.
U: 337-8. April 1939.
FURTHER NOTES ON BASKET MAKER III. SANDALS FROM NORTHEASTERN ARIZONA.
Gordon C. Baldwin. 41:223-44. April 1939. See previous
article 40:4.65-85. July 1938. American Anthropologist.
GOOD OLD DAYS A FALLACY. Science News Letter. 35:28. January 1Z>,
GOVERNMENT AND THE NAVAJO. 1846-1858. Frank D. Reeve. New Mexico
Historical Review. January 1939.
HUARIZATA. A Study in Andean Culture. Enrique de Lozada. Quarterly
Journal of Inter-American Relations. April 1939.
INDIAN NAMES FOR THE MONTHS. St. Nicholas. 66:26. February 1939.
MENTAL AND SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MAYA AND NAVAJO INDIANS AS EVI-
DENCED BY A PSYCHOLOGICAL RATING SCALE. M. Steggerda and
E. Macomber. Journal of Social Psychology. 10:51-9. Feb-
MUSIC OF INDIAN MEXICO. R. Gallop. Musical Quarterly. 25:210-25.
NATIVE LANGUAGES AS FIELD WORK TOOLS. Margaret Mead. American An-
thropologist. April 1939.
NATURE AND THE NORTHWESTERN RED MAN; MANY PLANTS STILL USED IN MAKING
CHARMS AND MEDICINE. H. D. Guie. Nature Magazine. 32:
71-3. February 1939.
NAVAJO CLANS AND MARRIAGES AT PUEBLO ALTO. Malcolm Carr, Katherine
Spencer, Doriane Woolley. American Anthropologist. 41:
245-57. April 1939.
NAVAJO YEI-BET-CHAI. F. Waters. Yale Review 28. No. 3: 558-71.
NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN ARTS. R. d'Harnoncourt. Magazine of Art. 32:
164-7. March 1939.
PICURIS, NEW MEXICO. Elsie Clews Parsons. American Anthropologist.
POTATO SPIRIT BELIEVED ANCIENT INDIAN GOD. Science News Letter. 35:
151. March 11, 1939.
PRIMITIVES RECKON TIME. TENA INDIANS IN ALASKAN YUKON REGION. Sci-
ence News Letter. 35:52. January 28, 1939.
PROBLEM IN PHONOLOGICAL ALTERNATION. M. Swadesh and C. F. Voegelin.
Language 15:1-10. January 1939.
REAL HIAWATHA. A. Wallace. Scholastic Magazine. 34:21S. May 1939.
REDSKIN REVIVAL: HIGH BIRTHRATE GIVES CONGRESS A NEW OVERPRODUCTION
HEADACHE. Newsweek Magazine. 13:14-15. February 20, 1939.
REPORT OF COLONEL SAMUEL COOPER OF INSPECTION TRIP FROM FORT GRAHAM
TO THE INDIAN VILLAGES ON THE UPPER BRAZOS MADE IN JUNE
1851. E. B. Ritchie. 327-33. Southwestern Historical
Quarterly. April 1939.
RINDISBACHER'S MINNESOTA WATER COLORS. G. L. Nute. Minnesota His-
tory. 20:54-7. March 1939.
SIGNIFICANCE OF HUNTING TERRITORY SYSTEMS OF THE ALGONKIAN IN SOCIAL
THEORY. F. G. Speck and L. C. Eiseley. American Anthro-
pologist. 41:269-80. April 1939.
SOCIAL CHANGE AMONG THE HIGHLAND INDIANS OF GUATEMALA. W. Kirk. So-
ciology and Social Research. 23:321-33. March 1939.
SOME OBSERVATIONS ON SHOSHONEAN DISTRIBUTIONS. Julian H. Steward.
American Anthropologist. April 1939.
SOME VERY LITTLE MEXICANS. W. Smith. St. Nicholas. 66:12-13. Feb-
ruary 25, 1939.
STABILITY IN CULTURE AND PATTERN. W. W. Hill. 41, 258-60. Ameri-
can Anthropologist. April 1939.
STUDY HALF-WAY POINT IN ANCIENT AMERICAN AXIS. Science News Letter.
35:121. February 25, 1939.
STUDY OF INDIANS SHOWS WHAT HARD TIMES WERE LIKE. Science News Let-
ter. 35:169. March 13, 1939.
Eskimos In Periodical Literature
ESKIMO DOGS: ANYONE CAN DRIVE DOGS. E. C. Forrest. Atlantic Month-
ly. 163:406-8. March 1939.
ESKIMO HARVEST: WALRUS HUNTING. Edited by L. Anson, B. Albee. Sat-
urday Evening Post. 211:36. March 20, 1939.
ESKIMO SEXUAL FUNCTIONS. C. A. Mills. Science. 89:11-12. Jan-
uary 6, 1939.
FROZEN FRAGMENTS OF AMERICAN HISTORY. Henry B. Collins, Jr. Nation-
al Geographic Magazine. May 1939. 75:633-656.
INGENIUS ESKIMOS. E. Weyer. Reader's Digest. 34:53-6. June 19 39-
MISSION IN THE ARCTIC CIRCLE; EXPERIENCES AT BARROW, ALASKA, THE
NORTHERNMOST MISSION IN THE WORLD. H. W. Greist. Mission-
ary Review of the World. 62:167-71. April 1939.
UN MARCHE ESQUIMAU. P. Frenchen. Les Annales Politiques et Lit-
teraires. 113:227-9. February 25, 1939.
WHITE ESKIMO CHIEF. C. M. Garber. Hygeia. 17:328-32. April 1939-
Books On Indian Life
BARNETT, H. G. CULTURE ELEMENT DISTRIBUTIONS. Part 9. 75 Cents.
University of California. 1939.
BERGSOE, P. METALLURGY AND TECHNOLOGY OF GOLD AND PLATINUM AMONG THE
PRE-COLUMBIAN INDIANS. 2 krone. 1937. G. E. C. Gad. 1932
Vimmelskaftet Street, Copenhagen, Denmark.
CHAPMAN, K. M. POTTERY OF SANTO DOMINGO PUEBLO. 1936. Laboratory
of Anthropology, Inc., Santa Fe, New Mexico.
CLAY, C. SWAMPY CREE LEGENDS. 6 shillings. 1939. The Macmillian
Company. $1.25. Toronto.
COTT, E. E. TRAILING THE DAVIS INDIANS. 65 Cents. 1936.
EWERS, J. C. PLAINS INDIAN PAINTING. $4.50; Education Edition. $3.
1939. Stanford University Press.
GIBSON, L. H. MORAVIAN INDIAN MISSION ON WHITE RIVER. $2. 1938.
Historical Bureau of Library and Historical Department
of the State of Indiana.
HAINES, F. RED EAGLES OF THE NORTHWEST. $2.50. 1939. Scholastic
Press. 338 N. W. 9th Avenue, Portland, Oregon.
HEWETT, E. L. ANCIENT ANDEAN LIFE. $4. 1939. Bobbs-Merrill. $4.50
McClelland and Stewart. Toronto.
HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF PENNSYLVANIA. INDIAN TREATIES PRINTED BY BEN-
JAMIN FRANKLIN. 1736-1762, buck $15. 1938. The Society,
1300 Locust Street, Philadelphia.
KELLY, I. T. EXCAVATIONS AT CHAMETIA, Sinaioa. $1.25. 1938. Uni-
versity of California.
KING, T. NARRATIVE OF TITUS KING OF NORTHAMPTON, MASSACHUSETTS, A
PRISONER OF THE INDIANS IN CANADA, 1755-1758. $1.50. 1938
Connecticut Historical Society.
LONG, J. VOYAGES AND TRAVELS OF AN INDIAN INTERPRETER AND TRADER.
Limited Edition.. $5. Clark, Arthur H. California.
HERA, H. P. BANDED BACKGROUND BLANKETS. 25 Cents. 1939. Labora-
tory of Anthropology, Inc., Santa Fe, New Mexico.
MERA, H. P. RAIN BIRD. $3.50. 1937. Laboratory of Anthropology,
Inc., Santa Fe, New Mexico.
OGLESBY, C. MODERN PRIMITIVE ARTS IN MEXICO, GUATEMALA AND THE SOUTH-
west. $3. 1939. McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York City.
$2.75. George J. McLeod, Toronto.
PARSONS, E. W. C. PUEBLO INDIAN RELIGION. 2 Vol. $7. 1939. Un-
iversity of Chicago Press.
PAYNE, E. W. IMMORTAL STONE AGE. Lea'tte. $1. 1938. Light ner
Publishing Company, 2810 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago
PEALE, A. L. UNCAS AND THE MOHEGAN-PEQUOT. $2. 1939. Me a d o r
Publishing Company, Boston.
PRIEST, J. STORIES OF THE REVOLUTION BUCK. $2.50. 1938. E. E.
Browne 11, 1^18 Walnut Street, Philadelphia.
REICHARD, G. A. DEZBA, WOMAN OF THE DESERT. $3. J. J. Augustin
RENAUD, E. B. ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY SERIES: ELEVENTH REPORT. (llim-
eographed). 75 Cents. 1938. University of Denver, De-
partment of Anthropology, Denver.
ROBERTS, F. H. H. ARCHAEOLOGICAL REMAINS IN THE WHITEWATER DISTRICT
OF EASTERN ARIZONA. Part 1. 50 Cents. 1939. Superinten-
dent of Documents.
ROGERS, F. B. SOLDIERS OF THE OVERLAND. Limited Edition. $7.50.
1938. Grabhorn Press. San Francisco.
STEWARD, J. H. BASIN-PLATEAU ABORIGINAL SOCIO-POLITICAL GROUPS. 1938.
50 Cents. Superintendents of Documents.
BERRILL, A. H. AMERICAN INDIAN CIVILIZATION. $1.69. Tudor Publish-
WEBB, W. S. ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WHEELER BASIN ON THE TENNESSEE
RIVER IN NORTHERN ALABAMA. 50 Cents. 1939. Superinten-
dent of Documents.
WOODRUFF, J. INDIAN OASIS. $3.00. 1939. Caxton Printers, Idaho.
Nearly two billions of idle capital (not including PWA
loans) were put to work as a result of the non-Federal program of
the Public Works Administration, it was reported on June 16 as PWA
observed its sixth anniversary.
The source of this contribution from cities, towns and
counties toward the construction of 16,700 useful local projects is
chiefly idle private capital with which investors bought bonds is-
sued by local public bodies.
Roy B. Williams, Assistant Commissioner of the Bureau of
Reclamation, was recently designated as Construction Engineer of
the important Friant Division of the Central Valley Project , Cal -
ifornia . Harry W. Bashore, Construction Engineer of the Kendrick
Project, Wyoming, will take over Mr. Williams' duties in Washington
as Assistant Commissioner.
Cheyenne Indians At Tongue River
(Montana) Reservation Are Versa-
tile CCC Workers
Here Is The Way They Cut Posts
And Poles For Guard Rails -
And Load Trucks With Good Soil
To Build Lawns -
And Produce Workmanlike Signs.
CIVILIAN CONSERVATION COR
INDIAN DIVISION— NOTES FR<!
WEEKLY PROGRESS REPORT
Grasshoppers Increasing At
Fort Berthold (North D a fc o t a )
Grasshoppers appear to be in
more increasing numbers than
last year, or in the past, and
the rainy spell did not last
long enough to do any damage to
them. Bait is being mixed for
extermination. Six bait spread-
ers are on h a n d to do the
spreading and it is hoped that
three or four more spreaders
made by the A-H Club can be
borrowed from the school de-
partment. Maurice F. Bab by.
Grasshopper Control Is Ma-
jor Project at Fort T o tten
( North Dakota ) From 75% to 90%
of the grasshopper eggs have
already hatched. A crew i s
mixing the bait. Two mechani-
cal spreaders, pulled by trucks
are spreading the bait along
roadsides and more level farm-
land. In the rougher country,
30 small crews have been organ-
ized to kill the hoppers before
they can do much damage to crop
land and gardens. James H. Hyde.
Fitzsimmons Dam Nears Com-
pletion at Potawat6mi ( Kansas )
The spillway is already com-
pleted and the dam will be fin-
ished shortly. It will be one
of the best dams con s tructed
to date on the reservation.
The pine trees are di f f i-
cult trees to get started, but
with only one year's nursery
growth, they are already show-
ing considerable progress. Mr.
Russell Reitz, Forest Serv-
ice State Director, said he
would be satisfied in view of
the dry weather if the trees
even stayed alive without
growth. P. Everett Sperry .
Recreation a 1 Activities
At Yakima ( Washington ) T he
demand for recreation is such
that there is barely enough e-
quipment and games to go a-
round. During t he evenings
and weekends the tennis court,
horseshoe pit and kitty ball
field are in constant use.
Considerable interest is also
shown by the spectators on the
sidelines. G. W. St. Miche 1 .
Rain Speeds Crops A t
Pierre Indian School ( South
Dakota ) The rain pepped up
our new seeding and sodding
and started the weeds to such
an extent that it has kept the
men very busy. Enrollees
planted a good size corn and
mellon patch after w o rking
hours. The me lions will be
protected with screens and a
desperate effort is being made
to grow the usual crop of
sweet corn and pickles. S. J.
Big Forest Fire Curbed At
Mescalero ( New Mexico ) Work
on all projects was conducted
on a small scale because all
available men were called to
fight the fire. Outside CCC
camps assisted and the fire
was taken care of in jig time.
This proved another example of
the efficiency of our CCC fire
fighting machines. Not one man
was injured or overcome b y
smoke among the 300 who took
part in fighting this fire.
M. L. Osborn .
Indian enrollees perfect
themselves on every skill of
the automobile trade in repair-
ing trucks and automotive e-
quipment. They do painting,
welding, fender rolling, up-
holstering, body reb uilding,
in addition to motor overhaul-
ing and repair of motor and
An unusual example of the
advancement in mechanical skill
is that of Sam Notsinneh, A-
pache enrollee at Jicarilla,
New Mexico. Until he joined
the CCC he spoke no English,
had no understanding of how to
conduct himself and to perform
useful work of any kind. He
has since learned a bit of En-
glish and how to operate trac-
tors and dirt moving machinery.
If he could speak English bet-
ter, there is no question a-
bout his being able to secure
and hold a good job outside the
Sam says its all right to
speak to his tractor in Apache
"Because he understand pretty
Safety Committee At Wind
River ( Wyoming ) Gets Results .
A safety committee has proved
successful in working out new
methods t o reduce a c c i dent
frequency. A safety man is
appointed for each small work
group and camp to report to
the committee on safety con-
ditions. A safety court has
been started with a judge,
jury of six, prosecuting at-
torney, and an attorney for
the defense. A sheriff brings
the accused to court and sees
that sentences are carried
out. Sentences are composed
of details of extra duty and
vary with the seriousness of
the offense. Jack E. St en-
Recreational Ac tivities
At Uintah and Ouray ( Utah ) The
boys at Hidden Camp are taking
a great interest in their rec-
reational activities after
working hours. Their spirit
is very good. Playing check-
ers and reading continues to
be the favorite a f t e r-dark
sports. The boys are comin g
along fine in their fie 1 d
work. Carne s La Rose .
Landscaping Project A t
Tomah ( Wisconsin ) Progressing
The continuation of the land-
scaping project has shown
fine results. The lawn a-
round the ranger station is
coming along fine and the elm
trees that were transplanted
this spring have done very
well, and the old 1 o gging
camp site almost ceases to be.
The old building is be ing
replaced by a new building
and nice lawn.
Good sportsman s hi p in
hunting and fishing is being
presented as part of the edu-
cational program at CCC- 1 D
Camp Nanaha. The camp is now
located at Bishop, California,
in the heart of the High Sier-
ra country. This area is
noted for its fishing and
hunting and the enrollees have
already learned where to find
the trout in the cold mountain
streams. A series of talks is
being presented at the camp
each Friday afternoon on the
subjects of game conservation,
the reason for game laws, for-
est protection and good man-
ners in the mountains in gen-
eral. These talks are being
given by state game wardens,
forest rangers, local sports-
men and others interested in
conserving game and promo t ing
the enjoyment of the out-of-
Enrollee Program Pro-
gressing at Osage (Oklahoma )
The enrollee program is pro-
gressing very nicely, with the
classes being held at differ-
ent places on the campus. The
classes are showing improve-
ment and the enrollees are
very attentive. The enrollee
gardens are growing a great
deal and will soon be ready
Mormon Cricket Control Is
Being Studied At Warm Springs
( Oregon ) The dusting process
of the Mormon crickets has
been discontinued for the time
being. Col. Hart W. Palmer,
Entomologist from P o rtland,
has been here to study this
infestation and reports that
there is a large infestation
on the upper edge of the res-
ervation, but in that area
there is nothing to be harmed
by the crickets.
SANTEE SIOUX INDIAN SETS EXAMPLE FOR
YOUNGER GENERATION WITH CREDIT AND HOGS
Editor's Note ; The following article was originally
written by Harrison Goodteacher, a full-blood Santee Sioux
Indian, in the Dakota or Sioux language. Mr. Goodteacher
is one of the ninety revolving credit loan clients of the
Winnebago Agency in Nebraska, the large majority of whom
are making similar efforts, and demonstrating like ambi-
Thirty to forty years ago our Dakota people still had their
lands. From that time their lands were alienated, and with the loss
of their lands, their population increased until as many as two or
three families lived together under one roof.
Unexpectedly, an idea was born and formulated, and although
not of the Dakota, these white men, with a feeling of pity for the
Indians, brought about organization for our people. From the first I
liked this new idea and wanted to know more about it, so when Mr.
David Frazier came back from one of the first meetings which was held
at Pierre, South Dakota, I questioned him and was told about it. Lat-
er I talked with other young men about this idea. Now some of these
men are being placed on lands which were bought by the Government for
I, myself, am living on a four hundred acre farm rented
from white people and made possible by a loan from the Revolving Loan
Fund. Remembering the hard times I've had in the past, I sometimes
wonder if I'm the same man. On awakening in the mornings I now have
stock waiting to be fed and after they are fed and the cows are
milked, I go to a breakfast table whereon is milk, cream, butter and
eggs. This is what is wished for us by the Government. They also
want us to work on the lands purchased for us, not to sleep and to
raise better crops. Only so, can we hope to set a good example for
the younger generation.
From these ideas I know one good thing - owning hogs, I
have not bought any lard or pork products for more than four months.
1 farmed 113 acres of cultivated land this past year and intend to
farm 150 to 160 acres the coming year. I want to raise more hogs
this coming year also. The Government wants us to farm better and
remember the education part.
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARIES
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